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The Mind's Eye 

Volume 5 Number 3/4 


The Mind's Eye is a journal of review and comment 
published four times during the college year 
at North Adams, Massachusetts 01 247 

Copyright © 1981 by North Adams State College 

May/June 1981 


Robert Bishoff 
W. Anthony Gengarelly 
Stephen A. Green 
R. Michael Haines 
Charles Mclsaac 
Ellen Schiff 


Charles Mclsaac 


W. Anthony Gengarelly 

Thomas A. Mulkeen 2 Higher Education and ihe Changing World of Work 

Descent from affluence into scarcity and the transition from an 
energy economy to high technology create problems unique in the 
history of university and college. Higher education must respond 
with a revolution of its own, or cede the field to others. 

Robert Bence 9 Whatever Happened to Political Parties? 

However laudable their intent, electoral reforms have diminished the 
political power of the average citizen. We have sacrificed the ad- 
vantages of old-style bossism without gaining comparable benefits. 


Abbot Cutler 5 Fire at the Delanos 


Dwight Killam 11 Women Composers, Conductors, and Musicians of the Twentieth 

and Lea Newman Century, by Jane Weiner LePage. 

Review of a useful work and a rejoinder on sex discrimination. 


W, Anthony Gengarelly 2 The Editor's File 

Restless Americans 

Reaction to the flight of Columbia raises historic questions about 
American character and provokes doubts about the future of 
international comity. 

The Editor's File 

Restless Americans 

The awe- inspiring performance of the United Slates 
space shuttle Columbia has brought new hope and 
inspiration to the American people. Praise has been 
almost universal for Columbia's nearly flawless mission. 
Richard L. Strout, of the Christian Science Monitor, recall- 
ing Charles Lindbergh's New York to Paris flight in 5927, 
commented, "Today the nation shudders over an attempted 
assassination and the tragedy of Atlanta's murders. And now. 
as half a century ago, bold advent ute in the sky lifts hearts for 
a moment at a time of spiritual thirst." 

However euphoric and proud one may feel about the coun- 
try's collective achievement, it might be wise to keep in mind 
the uncertainties, which preceded Columbia's launch. Three 
years behind schedule and S3 billion over budget, the space- 
craft was delayed by mechanical problems up to the last 
minute. All this suggested that the United States's vaunted 
technological preeminence was indeed slipping. Even witha 
letter-perfect liftoff people remained dubious. One technician 
at NASA's Houston space center remarked incredulously, "I 
kept waiting for something to go wrong — but nothing did.'' 

Such skepticism reveals a deep-seated apprehension Ameri- 
cans have traditionally shared ahout their place in the 
world. While visiiing the United States in the 1830s, the 
French aristocrat and sociologist Alexis de Tocqueville 
observed that Americans were "restless in the midst of their 
prosperity." Equality of condition had brought opportunity 

but no security. Although the attainment of material success 
was abundantly evident, anxiety prevailed and none were 
content: "The desire of acquiring the comforts of the world 
haunts the imagination of the poor-, and the dread or losing 
them that of the rich.' h Tocquevillc's contemporary, Walt 
Whitman, in praising his fellow countrymen's match to the 
Pacific, called Americans a "resistless, restless race. 1 ' 

And so they continue to fie Domestic competition has gone 
global since World War EI, am] Americans agitate, push, 
climb in order to remain ahead of the Soviet Union. Without 
fully understanding the implications, the United States, 
driven by the specter of international communism, ventured 
into outer space to confirm American military power and 
technological supremacy. The country has not advanced 
much beyond the original need to "beat the Russians" which 
motivated the space program during the 1960s. 

How in fact is the space shuttle's evident superiority to be 
used? The question is open. Many fear that by default its use. 
will be chiefly military. Thus Columbia, the symbol of the 
future, raises the same timeless questions posed by Paul Gau- 
guin in the title of his nineteenth-century portrait of South 
Sea island natives Where Do We Come Promt Who Are We? 
Where Are We Going? Unless we come to terms with these 
concerns and cease to be impelled by the ghosts of failure, 
America may not, as John Young proclaimed, he on its way to 
the stars but instead on a journey to star wars. 

— W, Anthony Qertgareliy 

The Bu rden of the 1980s 

Higher Education and the Changing World of Work 

by Thomas A, Mulkeen 

The American experience has been shaped by 
expansion and nurtured in the confidence that 
the gioss national product will never stop 
growing, The certainly thai expanding productivity 
would eventually permit every group in our society 
to prosper without having to take something away 
from anyone else has been the chief sustainer of 
America's standard of living. 

In the four decades since the end of tfie Second World 
War the affluent society arrived and departed, and a 
new and less confident era began. Our national develop- 
ment was based on the supposition that the supply of 
resources was limitless. But theage of abundant capital 
and labor, endless raw materials, and low-cost energy is 
over. The American economy is troubled by stagnating 
productivity, high unemployment, and the debilitating 
combination of surging inflation and high interest 
rates. The infants of the baby boom are now mature 

adults, and their numbers will create an unprecedented 
economic strain well into the next century. For them, 
the future will be marked by slow growth, declining 
productivity, energy shortages, chronic inflation, and 
growing poverty. Their employment opportunities 
will be affected both by the shift of population, 
markets, and industry to the Sun Belt and by the 
transfer of multinational operations to more profitable 
locations abroad. 

To compound the difficulties, world population is 
swelling, resources are shrinking, and the rich-poor 
gap is widening. And the Third World has made 

Thomas A. Mulkeen, formerly chairman of the Department of Edu- 
cation at North Adams State College, is Associate Professor in the 
Division of Administration, Polity, and Urban Education at the 
Fvrdliam University Graduate School of Education. Ills article 
"Higher Education in the Coming Ageoj Limits" which appeared in 
the April 1 980 issue of The Mind's Eye is republished in llf Journal 
of Higher Education, May i June 1981. 


known its intention to gain control of one-quarter of 
the earth's wealth and productive capacity by the year 
2000. Meanwhile, the planet's carrying capacity is 
reaching its limit. 

WHicr: acknowledging a comingage of scarcity, we 
must at the same time note the growing domi- 
nance of technology in our economic system. In the 
past two generations new technologies have replaced 
workers in the agricultural industry. Factory produc- 
tion has hecn heavily automated; robots at some plants 
assemble products entirely without human hands. In 
the last decade dramatic advances have been made in 
computers and communications. The size and cost of 
computer systems have been greatly reduced by the 
microprocessor. Cost-efficient transmissions over long 
distances have been made possible by telecommunica- 
tion satellites. The microprocessor even threatens to 
revolutionize "white collar" work: the new technology 
has the potential to eliminate not only clerks and secre- 
taries but highly skilled professionals. 

These technological innovations allow the produc- 
tive process to be fragmented into a variety of compo- 
nent, operations that can be performed at different pro- 
duction sites across the globe, Increasingly, low-paid 
workers in developing countries are employed lor sun- 
pie assembly tasks while more complex functions are 
carried out by relatively skilled workers in more 
advanced societies. 1 

Technology grows in importance as the production 
process becomes more intricate and, since clever ma- 
chines do not necessarily need brainy workers to run 
them, its effect may be to kill jobs. Fewer Americans are 
finding a productive role in the economy. 
The failure of large numbers of educated 
people to achieve their career goals, as well 
as the diminishing ability of the education- 
ally less favored to improve their position, 
could engender a discouraged and disgrun- 
tled attitude in a large segment of the 
population — w r iih potentially dangerous po- 
litical and economic consequences to the 

FOR the first time in our history the 
problem of income inequity will have 
to be faced without resort to the solution of 
economic growth. We have never been lorced to make 
hard decisions about income distribution. But in an 
age of scarcity reality will require that some large- 
group tolerate a reduction in its standard of living. No 
one wants to volunteer for this, and we have a political 
process that is incapable of forcing any interest group 
to shoulder the burden of income reduction. Yet, in our 
"zero-sum" society fundamental problems can no 
longer be solved without a consensus as to whose 
income will go down. 2 For Americans who have viewed 

getting "more" as part of their birthright the adjust- 
ment to the hardship of "less" will be difficult. Per- 
sonal frontiers will shut down, opportunities will 
become limited, and deeply held values will be modified. 

We are in a transition from one economic, political, 
and social system to another whose outlines are as yet 
unclear. The old technic of energy as substitute for 
man's muscle is being replaced by a knowledge technol- 
ogy as substitute for man's mind. With the stockpile of 

In an age of scarcity reality will require that 
some large group tolerate a reduction in its 
standard of living. No one wants to volunteer 
for this. 

knowledge growing at a bewildering rate, experts find 
it difficult to keep pace with advances in their own 
fields, let alone in other disciplines. It is now apparent 
that people, in their initial educational preparation, 
cannot acquire all the ski I Is and knowledge that will be 
helpful in future years, because some of the skills they 
will need are either not now recognized or have yet to 
evolve. A large percentage of jobs now being filled did 
not exist a generation ago; and people entering the 
economy today will have to contemplate the likelihood 
of several basic job or career changes together with a 
work life longer than that of their elders. Worse, the 
competition for good jobs will be fierce in an oversup- 
ply of qualified applicants. 

What will be the role of higher education in 
preparing Americans for a different society? 
Higher education was part of the larger revolution that 
transformed the nation from an agrarian to 
an industrial system. However, in recent 
years a discrepancy has begun to emerge 
between employers' needs and prospective 
workers' educational qualifications. The 
world of work has undergone a far-reaching 
metamorphosis, causing a disjuncturc be- 
tween what is expected at the workplace and 
what college graduates are prepared to do. 
Higher education has not kept pacewith the 
technological revolution. The typical curri- 
culum of the American college has not 
changed substantially since the turn of the 
century. Instructional methodology remains 
entrenched in the past. Corporations are now training 
their own people, bypassing universities as presump- 
tively inadequate centers for education and training. 
Over one-half of the labor force of the industrialized 
nations is, or soon will be, in the service sector.' Many 
of the service professions require training that is multi- 
disciplinary. The university education of the multidis- 
ciplinary generalist calls for a very different emphasis, 
challenging both the resources and the integrity of the 
traditional academic structure.' 1 


At the same time, the resource base of higher edu- 
cation has shrunk. Institutions face declining enroll- 
ments, inflation, slowed growth in federal educational 
spending, and a loss of public confidence in (he value 
of the academic degree. Faculty positions have vanished, 
competition to maintain existing positions and pro- 
grams has intensified, and most academic administra- 
tors have responded by trying to recreate the 1970s on a 
smaller model. 

At a time when personal computers, television discs, 
and other new products of high technology are trans- 
forming the ways of processing information, higher 
education maintains its one-sided emphasis 
on the spoken and written word. Instead of 
confronting the implications of technical 
change, our colleges and universities face 
backward toward the Industrial Age. The 
educational reforms of the 1960s and early 
1970s have come full circle. Faculty, depart- 
ments, and deans once more command the 
campus with new sets of mandated require- 
ments, textbooks, lectures, examinations, and 
grades. The college curriculum places heavy 
emphasis on t he accumulation of facts. There 
is little lime for thinking. The students are 
passive. They now use college as a vocational 
training ground lor adapting to the present social and 
economic system. Aware that jobs for liberal arts 
majors are hard to get, they compete for places in busi- 
ness administration, engineering, and other "sure-fire" 
paths to employment, while the colleges seek desper- 
ately to keep liberal education alive. 

Can higher education respond to the changing 
world of work, or has the economy become too 
complex and too technical lor schooling to keep up? 
With the shift to technology comes a need for new 
coping skills. The basic "raw materials" for the worker 
of the future will be information and imagination, 5 A 
large part of education will consist in helping students 
to learn how to gain access to information and how to 
use it to their advantage. 

In a world where we can no longer acquire knowledge 
once and for all the most useless courses are those 
which teach an array of facts, for the material will not 
be remembered past the final exam. New modes of 
instruction must be developed. It is vital to replace 
learning as examination-oriented fact gathering with a 
concept ol education as inquisitiveness, sequential 
thought, and problem solving. Education must teach 
us how to learn, flow to cope with change, and how to 
build up a body of knowledge that continually evolves 
all through life. The problems of the future will not be 
resolved by emphasis on a narrow vocational focus, 
partly because the skills so imparted are likely to 
become useless and partly because the readiness for 
switches in direction is more likely to be enhanced by 
breadth of knowledge and understanding. 

We are in an age when we face problems that no 
single discipline can resolve, and we need people who 
can pull together and integrate knowledge from a wide 
variety of fields. Higher education must equip this 
generation and its successors with thecritical faculties 
needed to make sound choices. The information explo- 
sion will draw increasing numbers of Americans into 
lifelong learning activities. New skills will constantly 
have to be mastered. Educational opportunities will be 
distributed over the whole fife cycle with a flexibility 
that will alternate education with ivork and leisure. 

For the country's colleges and universities, 
which are among America's most iradi- 
tion-bound institutions, anticipating and ac- 
commodating the learning needs of tomor- 
row's educated person creates new unknowns 
and poses unprecedented challenges. Clearly 
there is need to educate for more than a 
particular career, to communicate a deeper 
understanding of science and technology than 
earlier generations had, and to build closer 
collaboration among science, technology, and 
the hit man i lies. We must give today's students 
more responsibility, individualize the aca- 
demic process, redefine the course structure, 
and make interdisciplinary studies a focus of educa- 
tional experience. While supporting the value of the 
traditional major, institutions should also consider 
dual-degree programs both within their own walls and 
between professional schools and schools of arts and 

Interesting ideas spring up at the boundaries of 
knowledge, where people can work on the same prob- 
lem from different viewpoints and come to the realiza- 
tion that they have common interests. Faculty and stu- 
dents should no longer look at their work from 
detached perspectives but in an overlapping context 

Aware that jobs for liberal arts majors are hard 
to get, students compete for places in business 
administration, engineering, and other "sure- 
fire" paths to employment. But the problems 
of the future will not be resolved by emphasis 
on a narrow vocational focus. 

where their disciplines are valued for their special con- 
tribution to the exploration of a particular issue or 
problem. There must be a way of building a curriculum 
that leaches students to think across subject fields. We 
cannot train them in every subject they will use during 
their careers, for we simply do not know what they will 
need years from now. Universities are slow io evolve 
new categories of knowledge, but the next quarter- 
century will doubtless bring new disciplines with new 
names. In the meantime, interdisciplinary programs 


will allow students to work toward a new synthesis by 
challenging (he resources and integrity of traditional 
disciplinary structures. 

' I 'His, of course, connotes substantial changes in 
X. what it means to be a faculty member. Instructors 
must be free to develop new' courses and to combine and 
recombine with colleagues in opening new academic 
fields in response to changing student needs. Relation- 
ships with faculty from other disciplines will lead 10 
the development of team-taught courses— as in the case 
of artists and philosophers exploring problems of per- 
ception, biologists and psychologists examining con- 
cepts of human nature, or engineers discovering that 
while they are studying transistors they are actually 
solving a psychological problem. 

Tied to cross-disciplinary inquiry is a concern not 
only for what is taught but for how it is taught. Learn- 
ing how to learn must become progressively more 
important. Students must accept the responsibility 
of being central agents in their education, and faculty 
will expect to share authority with them for the defini- 
tion and direction of their academic programs. A crea- 
tive tension ivill evolve between traditional faculty 
authority and a new valuation of student choice. 

Technology will play a more important role in the 
educational process. In learning laboratories the stu- 
dent will go at his own pace using programmed mate- 
rial on tape, film, and other electronic media. Compu- 
ter technology will multiply the number of places 
where learning can occur. A person will literally be 
able to carry education with him and fulfill require- 
ments anywhere there is a telephone or an electrical 
outlet. Technology will allow the student to 
acquire all necessary basic information before 
he undertakes real inquiry into academic 
problems. He will then use the the classroom 
to absorb process skills rather than facts. 
Faculty members will be freed from devoting 
valuable time to dispensing basic information 
and to drilling students in elementary skills 
or factual knowledge. 

Thus, classroom instruction will beable to 
shift from a knowledge base to a process base. 
Class sessions will be places where students 
and teachers order, sift, analyze, evaluate, re- 
flect on, and synthesize information. The responsi- 
bility of the faculty will be extensively lor the transmis- 
sion of that kind of learning for which inquiry and 
discovery modes of teaching are appropriate. This will 
represent a sweeping change in the way faculty and 
students engage one another in learning. 

Nor can education cease with the granting of a 
degree. Lifelong learning programs will be the 
indispensable adjuncts of high technology and rapidly 
shilling economic needs. This will demand a commit- 

ment of institutional and faculty resources which will 
amount to a fundamental transformation of the aca- 
demic community. Most educational institutions are 
still designed for young people who have few responsi- 
bilities. They are ill-suited to men and women who 
must fit education into a busy life. The adult learner 
population will be older and part-time, will contain 
more women and minority members, and will be, by 
traditional standards, less well-prepared. Such students 
will obviously require instructional approaches quite 
diflereni front those suitable to the traditional college 
undergraduate. Arrangements will need to be 

Classroom instruction will be able to shift 
from a knowledge base to a process base. Class 
sessions will be places where students and 
teachers order, sift, analyze, evaluate, reflect 
on, and synthesize information. 

highly flexible, so (hat education is made available to 
anyone willing and able to learn under circumstances 
suited to personal convenience and with a curriculum 
shaped to meet a series of individually articulated goals 
ol persona] growth and professional reeducation. 

Since adults have a commitment to job and family, 
they will very often want to learn sitting at home — on 
t heir own time and a t their own speed. Technology will 
enable this to happen. The home will become an ever- 
increasing societal force, 6 and through computer tech- 
nology educational institutions will be able to oiler 
academic programs to adult learners in their living 

Academic programs can be madesubject to 
a contract system under whose terms students 
and faculty will agree on the work to be done, 
the methods by which objectives will be reach- 
ed, and the particular instructors who will 
guide and evaluate performance. In addi tion, 
institutions must integrate adult learners into 
the regular program by greater use of short 
courses, workshops, seminars, and institutes. 
Scheduling will accommodate student need 
rather than faculty convenience. At issue, 
then, is the ability of the campus to belt iend a 
new set of learning requirements with a reor- 
ganized curriculum and revised teaching methods. 

IT is an understatement to say that curricular and 
instructional changes of this magnitude require the 
effective participation of faculty. Schooled in a long 
and honorable tradition, faculty are charged with the 
function of transmitting the culture ol society — appre- 
hended both as static achievement and dynamic evolu- 
tion. Confronted now with broad and significant social 
upheaval, faculty must seize the 1980s as a decade of self- 



"Their underclothes are all 
gone — Is it not a terrible mis- 
fortune? Yet they feel so grateful 
that all have escaped with life 
and limb that they bear their 
losses like philosophers— better, 
like Christians." 

It was an uneasy warm night. 

We had not slept for the din of voices 

from the beach; the clatter 
of tongues making sleep impossible 
as the Chinamen worked to free a fastboal gone ashore. 

It was as if the night 

held calamity in it 
but never did I think 
that Mrs. Delano would arrive 

in only a gown and shawl, 

and that fire 
that very night 

would consume their beautiful house, 


furnishings, dresses, preserves, 
essences, spices, pictures, 
books, everything 

gone. A blessing 

that Mr. Delano was here and not 
in Canton. Dashing back in 

in his cap and nightshirt 

to rescue the money and accounts. 

And now tonight 

walking up from dinner at Mrs. Ritchie's 
the ladies on the arms of the gentlemen 
it was as if we had just risen from the dinner table 
to find the house around us 
in ruins; the moonlight 
entering there, softening, polishing; 
the strange beauty of things gone. The moon 
picking out with its light 
so small and invaluable an object 


by Abbot Cutler 

as Mrs. Delano's gold thimble 
there in all the blackness. 

Mrs. Delano said that the moon is a woman 
and understands, is sympathetic 
to women, which I 

have felt, especially 

at sea, 

a communion al first 
strange to feel. 

The Malays believe 

that a good man goes to the moon 

where he sails all night 

and in the morning a huge fish 

takes the moon like a glowing sand dollar 

upon his back under the sea 

through the day 

and into the next night. 

The sun has no fish, 

but only bad men 

to drag it by ropes 

across the sky. 

So there tonight the moon 

held everything magical, 

and even the books 
so mourned by Mr, Delano 
seemed touched with momentary magic, 

piled in heaps there where the bookcase had stood. 
We could kneel and find whole pages in perfect form, 
the words intact 

till touched, when 
in the moon's light 

they would crumble to nothing. 

Note: The voice in the poem is 
that of Rebecca Kinsman, who 
sailed to Macao, China, in 1843 
where she lived with her young 
children while her husband trad- 
ed between there and Canton. 
The passage that precedes the 
poem is from one of Rebecca's 
letters home. 

"Fire at the Delanos" will appear 
in Abbot Cutler's IgtS Rfhrrca 1847 
to be published this year by Rowan 
Tree Press. Mr. Cutler is a part-lime 
instructor tn the English Depart- 
ment of iXortli Adams State College. 


improvement. At present, faculty development pro- 
grams at most institutions are limited to orientation 
sessions, travel to professional conferences and work- 
shops, sabbatical leaves, and research support. The 
most active programs are designed to help instructors 
upgrade and update knowledge of their academic spe- 
cialty. These accepted concepts of faculty renewal are 
now being questioned. Shifting enrollments and 
changing curricular choices often leave a surplus of 
(enured faculty in one department and a shortage in 
another. Traditionally, institutions were able to hire 
new members to cope with these conditions, but in the 
future this option will be limited. With a stable instruc- 
tional staff and volatile student and institutional 
needs it will become necessary to reallocate resources so 
that faculty in academic areas with falling enrollments 
may participate in other programs. An interdisciplinary 
curriculum will permit faculty to belong both to a 
department and toone or more interdisciplinary teams. 

Realistic assessment must take note of 
morale factors. Ttie declining rate of growth 
in higher education has resulted in decreased 
faculty mobility. Fewer young scholars are 
preparing for academic careers. Faculty face 
retrenchment, high inflation, and lower-lhan- 
expected salary increases. Fewer tenured posi- 
tions await junior faculty. Furthermore, ac- 
cording to a recent Rand study of educational 
change, teachers seem to "peak out" after five 
to seven years on the job,' Faculty personnel, 
like any other professionals, have a propen- 
sity to become less exciting and excited, to 
slop growing, and to cease renewing them- 

Staff development can focus on institutional 
change, offer an alternative to retrenchment, and 
have a positive impact on morale and performance. 
Educational leaders will be well-advised to plan renewal 
programs around institutional agenda which take into 
account the faculty, their careers, their courses, and the 
students they teach. There is an obvious case to be made 
for the diversification of leaching loads and the release 
of faculty for study, reeducation research, and curricular 
planning. Sizeable funds should be committed to these 
purposes. Such monies might be administered in the 
form of an internal organization operated like a 
foundation. Under the direction of a committee of 
faculty, the foundation would encourage instructional 
staff to make proposals for the development of educa- 
tional and research ideas.™ In addition, faculty develop- 
ment ought to be linked with the reward system. 
Administrators must make it clear that in recommend- 
ing salary adjustments appropriate attention will be 
paid to renewal activities. Promotion and merit pay 
which support faculty development with salary increas- 
es are most persuasive and substantial forms of incen- 

tive. Funds allocated to specific projects in research and 
curricular development create an environment which 
encourages excellence, raises standards of expectation, 
and engages faculty in lifelong learning activities that 
acknowledge their understanding of the continuous 
transformation of their role over the span of time spent 
in the profession. 

Educational leaders are therefore faced with several 
critical policy issues to be resolved in the coming 
decade. These will include instruction and curriculum 
design, new (et hnologies, the integration of nontradi- 
tional learners into higher education, and resource 
development. New strategies wilt have to be found 
which will deliberately balance lower levels of resource 
consumption and organizational activity with ascend- 
ing levels of service demand. Because academics resist 
being managed, academic planning is invariably diffi- 
cult. Traditionally, educational policy has evolved by 
slowly adjusting to new conditions with 
incremental changes. Bui planning will take 
on a more radical character in a period of 
crisis when programs have to be changed, 
curtailed, or abolished. 

Unfortunately, contemporary educational 
leaders have been trained for an event that is 
not going to happen. Most of the literal tire on 
organizational theory and management prac- 
tice assumes that the organization is expand- 
ing, or is interested in expanding. But the 
agenda has changed. Models which explicitly 
suggest how organizations can cope with sub- 
stantial resource decline are lacking. We 
know little in education about allocating scarcity. The 
educational leader of the next decade will have to 
develop new academic programs in a milieu marked by 
little or no enrollment growth, shifting enrollment 
patterns, "graying" faculties, limited or declining 
financial resources, collective bargaining negotiations, 
and legislative requests for increased accountability. 

Faculty personnel have a propensity to become 
less exciting and excited, to stop growing, and 
to cease renewing themselves. . . . There is an 
obvious case to be made for the diversification 
of teaching loads and the release of faculty for 
study, research, and planning. 

Despite these constraints we cannot afford to let higher 
education stagnate. Policy making must, in part at 
least, be subject to a new systems design that rejects 
unwarranted pessimism and aspires lo improved plan- 
ning. Plainly, strong and courageous management is 
needed to provide clear direction, since the programs 
discussed here will only be realized at the expense of 


Faculty and institutions have turned inward just at a 
time when public leadership by higher education is 
vitally needed by society. There is pioneering to be 
done in a nation enteringa period of deep change. The 
challenge to higher education is to move into a phase of 
leadership that addresses the problems of transition to 
the postindustrial world and their implications for its 
own viability. 


1. RichardJ. Barnet, The Lean Years: Politics in the Age of 
Scarcity (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980), p. 269. 

2. Lester C. Thurow, The Zero-Sum Society: Distribution 
and the Possibilities for Economic Change (New York: Basic 
Books, 1980), chap. 1 . 

3. George Wea thereby, "The External Environment for 
University Decision Making," p. 2. Prepared for an OECD- 
IHME professional seminar. University or Zuric h, Sept. 10- 
12, 1979. 

4. Ibid. 

5. Alvin Toffler. The Third Wave (New York: William Mor- 
row, 1980), p. S68. 

6. Ibid., p. 371. 

7. FredHechingcr, "About Education," New York Times, 15 
July I9H0, sec C, p. 4, col. 1. 

8. Richard M. Cyert, "The Management of Universities of 
Constant or Decreasing Size," Public Administration Review, 
July/ August 1978, p. 317 

The Dissolution of Party Discipline 

Whatever Happened to Political Parties? 

by Robert Bence 

The 1980 elections are now history. We have 
seen a significant increase in the number of 
Republicans in positions of power ill Wash- 
ington. Does this signify the rebirth of a new and 
strengthened Republican party and the return of a 
viable two-party system to the United States? Hardly. 
Had the two-party system been functioning as it once 
did, more Democrats would have turned out to vote 
ami there would have been more enthusiasm among 
our citizens for the political process. The resurgence 
of American conservatism is not directly related to 
political party activity. In the past election we again 
witnessed a continuing trend of low voter turnout 
(52%) coupled with a high degree of disgust for the 
quality of presidential candidates and considerable 
tin happiness with the electoral system in general, 
Even in the placid 1950s people went to the poils in 
greater numbers. Although there is a multitude of 
[actors to explain voter apathy, confusion, turd dis- 
enchantment, the demise of the two-party system 
stands out as a primary explanation. 

An active, "responsible" political party system can 
provide citizens with cleat choices and a framework 
of issues that help give the voter a political identity 
and guidelines for rationally choosing between can- 
didates. When there is mass participation in party 
activities more citizens work in campaigns, share poli- 
tical information with their friends and neighbors, 
and generally feel mote positive about their ability to 

influence government. Although a large number of 
Americans still use their party preference as a voting 
cue, the percentage has been diminishing steadily in 
the last decade. With no clear distinctions between 
the parties, we are left wild the unsettling process of 
basing our votes on superficial images of candidates 
or on out-of-focus issues. The crumbling of the party 
system has taken away another of our political sign- 
posts, weakened our sense of continuity, and impaired 
our understanding of the electoral system. 

The reader should not be left with lire impression 
that the "good old days" of strong parties constituted 
a political Utopia. Kingmakers in smoke-filled rooms 
in Tammany Hall, corruption and bribery such as 
the Teapot Dome scandal, and nomination conven- 
tion debacles like Chicago in 1 968 were not especially 
proud moments in our history. But despite the dis- 
tastelulness of the back room dealings of party bosses, 
we did have a much higher sense of political efficacy. 
Political parties never operated according to the ideal 
model, but Lit least they helped us to identify who was 
in charge of elections and government. 

What happened to our political party system? 
Well, too much to explain fully in the scope of 
th is essay, but we can indicate some of the major 
causes of decline. In our reaction against the abuses 
of political parties we have come close to reforming 
them out of business. The Progressive movement at 


the beginning of this century sought to cure the evils 
of party excess by removing [he base of their sup- 
port — patronage. Civil service laws served as a disin- 
centive for party workers, who no longer would see a 
direct economic reason for actively participating when 
the political arena ceased to provide them rewards in 
the form of jobs. While the Progressives instituted a 
variety of other reforms — for instance, the nonparti- 
san ballot and city managers — civil service acts re- 
moved the backbone from political parties at all lev- 
els of government 

A new generation of progressives reacted to the 
1968 Democratic Convention with another round of 
reforms designed to democratize elections. Nomina- 
tion of presidential candidates was taken almost com- 
pletely out of the hands of political parties by the 
widespread growth of presidential primaries. In the 
last three elections the presidential candidates have 
locked up the nomination before the convention. 
Delegates to these anachronistic gath- 
erings have little to do except lo cheer 
on cue and soak up the local culture 
of the fortunate convention city. Al- 
most all nominations for office at 
any level of government are now de- 
cided by primaries, a system which 
leaves party leaders to watch in frus- 
tration as the candidates' organiza- 
tions compete in the image-making 

The Campaign Finance Acts of 
1971 and 1974 have further reduced 
the role of political parties. The fund- 
ing of presidential candidates is more 
the responsibility of the national gov- 
ernment and of (barely visible) politi- 
cal action committees than of the 
parties, which once used their finan- 
cial leverage to insure that candidates 
would toe the parly line. Thus, can- 
didates have little reason to believe they should be 
responsible lo either a party leader or a platform. 

The irony of election reform is that an attempt to 
make the system more democratic has had the 
practical effect of blurring parly lines, making it 
more difficult for the citizen to understand the con- 
nection between his vote and public policy, and 
creating a power vacuum that has been filled, not by 
interested citizens, but by a new breed of power bro- 
kers. Candidates who now know they cannot rely on 
party organizations for support and funding have put 
together their own campaign staffs. These people 
operate behind the scenes more deftly than the most 
devious kingmakers (not excluding the late Mayor 
Daley of Chicago), who at least had an incentive to 
be responsible to their constituents. These isolated 

staffs usually consist of political technicians, poll- 
sters, and advertising people who profess more of a 
commitment to the strategy of winning than to any 
high idealistic principle. The epitome of [his type of 
organization was the Committee to Reelect the Presi- 
dent (the infamous CREEP), which in 1972 showed 
an almost unbelievable disdain for democratic prin- 
ciples in its drive to keep Richard Nixon in the 
White House. 

In the past, political parties served as a source of 
information for voters. Party workers, many of whom 
were our patronage-seeking neighbors, would tell us 
in an informal, one-to-one setting about their party's 
views on issues. They urged us to look at their candi- 
dates and platforms, [o participate and vote, We now 
watch television, getting dubious images of candi- 
dates and a feeble grasp of issues through an imper- 
sonal medium. Our political involvement is as remote 
as the business of changing channels. 


eformers should not receive all 
the blame for the demise of par- 
ties. Our political culture has also 
played a role. Most of us have the 
same basic political philosophy (li- 
beral democracy), and it is usually po- 
litical suicide for candidates or par- 
ties to deviate horn the sacred middle 
ground of politics. But even in [lie 
comparatively narrow ideological 
spectrum in the United States it is 
still possible for at least two parties 
to give us some clear choices on pub- 
lic policies. Third parties are usually 
doomed because of restrictive election 
laws and the fact that presidential 
candidates cannot win unless [hey re- 
ceive more than fifty percent of the 

If a functioning party system exist- 
ed, it could provide us with people and organizations 
to go to if we decided to take an active part in the 
political process. If candidates were tied closer to ttie 
platforms and organizational support of their patties, 
and if they could place more of their supporters in 
office, we would have a clearer sense of who is 
responsible lor the course of our government. Ameri- 
cans should not be condemned for their failure to 
participate or vote when the disappearance of politi- 
cal parlies has confused the meaning of elections and 
taken away their primary vehicle for meaningful par- 
ticipation. The problem ot apathy is systemic, not 

Robert Rente is Assistant Professor of Political Science at 
North Adams State College. 



Two Reviews of Women Composers, Conductors, and Musicians of 
the Twentieth Century, by Jane Weiner LePage. Scarecrow Press, 
1980, 293 pp., $16.00. 

The Public Recognition of Women in Music 
by Dwight D. Kilfam 

women are beginning to win some recognition 
and acceptance in the various fields of human 
endeavor, and their progress toward such acceptance 
in the field of music is an encouraging part of the 
trend away from bias. In music, as in many other 
fields, women have suffered in the past from carefully 
circumscribed perceptions of their role. Certainly, 
music was considered an acceptable domestic accom- 
plishment for a woman. In public performance wo- 
men singers achieved recognition and even fame in 
the last century; and performance on instruments, 
notably the piano, was well received on occasion. But 
the entry of women into composition or conducting, 
into orchestral performance, or into musical scholar- 
ship was as restricted as was their entry into many of 
the more obvious "men only" occupations and profes- 

Despite these obstacles a few women of superior 
determination and ability have achieved personal 
musical success and, in all-too-few instances, general 
recognition. It would seem the time is ripe for all of 
us to recognize these accomplishments, as well as the 
work of other women undeservedly neglected, and the 
potential which women have for far more significant 
contributions than our society has yet permitted them. 
Jane LePage's book represents a small but solid step 
in this direction and is a resource that should find 
use in a wide variety of situations. 

Through personal interviews and participation in 
concerts, through correspondence, and through re- 
search in primary sources, Professor LePage has con- 
structed portraits of seventeen important women from 
the world of twentieth-century music. The portraits 
are succinct, averaging less than twenty pages each, 
and contain extensive quotations from interviews, 
letters, and reviews. Each concludes with a list at 
compositions (recordings, in the case of the conduc- 
tors). Choice of subjects spans the twentieth century 
rather well, from Wanda Landowska (1879-1959) to 
Barbara Kolb (b. 1939). The writing style is infor- 
mally readable, and topics ate covered at a rapid 
pace. The index is comprehensive. All these factors 
make the book easily accessible to a variety of reading 
publics — the high school student who would like to 
know about women in music, the college student in a 

course in twentieth-century music, the professional 
musician or music educator, anci the interested lay- 
person. More significantly, the book is not one to lay 
aside after reading but rather one that will serve as a 
ready reference to the teacher, reviewer, or writer of 
program notes: for most of these women continue 
active in music today and, for many of them, even 
greater achievements lie ahead. 

Around any work of this type the greatest conten- 
tion will undoubtedly arise over selection. Does 
Landowska belong? Why not Sarah Caldwell? But 
even as the question is asked, one can think of justifi- 
cations; the point is raised chiefly to illustrate the 
impossibility of covering the field in one slender 
volume and of trying to satisfy all readers. It is also 
important to note some things that the book is not. 
There are no musical examples, nor are there detailed 
analyses oT compositions. There is no attempt to 
probe beyond the public persona of the various wo- 
men or to challenge their self-assessments. The book 
is certainly not propaganda, but to the extent the 
author takes a position it is one of advocacy. 

In short, then, this is a useful, readable book. It 
provides basic information and interesting personal 
details about seventeen of the most important women 
associated with the world of music, either currently 
or in the very recent past. It belongs in every high 
school and college library and is certainly a worth- 
while investment for the personal bookshelf of any 
musician or music lover. Jane LePage has rendered 
an important service to the world of women and the 
world of music. 

Towards an Androgynous World 
by Lea Newman 

D WIGHT killam praises Jane LePage's hook for 
drawing long overdue attention to the accomp- 
lishments of women composers, conductors, 
and musicians. He acknowdedges the "important ser- 
vice to the world of women and the world of music" 
rendered by her work — and yet something about the 
tenor of his commentary rankles. 

I 1 

Shortly after the hook's publication I had volun- 
teered to review it for (his journal. Realizing, how- 
ever, that my knowledge of music is severely limited, 
I suggested that a dual review might he appropriate: 
one from a colleague in the Music Department, and 
mine from a feminist perspective. Killam inadvert- 
ently encompassed both views, and his position was 
essentially the same as mine. Why, then, did I find 
myself unsettled? As 1 tried to identify what it was 
about his assessment that disturbed me, I discovered a 
fundamental fallacy in his approach — and, much to 
my dismay, in mine as well. 

The key lay in Killam's closing sentence in which 
he refers to LePage's contribution to the "world of 
women and the world of music." The dichotomy 
inherent in the two worlds he evokes is symptomatic 
of the bias both Killam and I unconsciously reflect. 
For when I envisioned a twofold review, I, too, was 
projecting a double world — one of women, the other 
of music. The implication in both cases is that the 
world of music is the domain of men. We were con- 
ceding a historical reality: until very recently the 
world of music has been a world of men. The same 
can be said for literature, politics, law, medicine, and 
almost every other field of human achievement. 

Unfortunately, by projecting the pat- 
terns of the past on the present we 
reinforce the historical model. And 
whether we do it consciously or not, 
the effect remains insidiously the same. 
Women are relegated to an arena dif- 
ferent from men's, a place apart with 
another set of values and standards. The separate but 
equal myth is as much a ploy of the sexist as it used 
to be of the racist. Separate means not only unequal 
but inferior. Every competent professional deserves to 
be measured by the criteria of the discipline and in 
company with all the practitioners in the field. As- 
signing a professional who happens to be a woman 
to a subdivision called "women anything" denigrates 
that professional's abilities and accomplishments.* 

The point could be made that by writing a book 
devoted exclusively to women in music LePage 
herself is contributing to a split in the professional 
music world. She addresses this issue in her preface: 
Ideally, there should be no need to separate the sexes; 
merit should be based solely on artistic ability. Unfortu- 
nately, this has not happened, even though recorded his- 
tory shows that women have been composing since the 
third century. The societal structures did not provide lor 
public presentation or documentation of their work. A 
few compositions written by women were performed 
and published under the names of their brothers or hus- 
bands, or under male pseudonyms. 
LePage's objective, to eliminate the inequities of the 
past as swiftly as possible, justifies her focus. Her 
purpose, as is the purpose of every women-oriented 

article, book, journal, course, and program, is to 
compensate for the neglect of centuries. 

In so doing, however, feminists, myself included, 
must beware of creating a "special studies" category 
where women's contributions lose essential connected- 
ness with humanity and society and are seen as some- 
thing less than authentic. Virginia Woolf, whose 
book A Room of One's Own has become a manifesto 
for women's rights, proposes not a feminist ideal but 
an androgynous one: all human beings should be 
allowed to fulfill their potential, male and female 
aspects thereof alike. Men and women are humair 
first, male and female second. 

Once such an ideal androgynous world is achieved, 
the professional distinction between a male and fe- 
male conductor, composer, or musician becomes mean- 
ingless. Books like Jane LePage's will help attain 
that ideal by correcting the record and giving women 
the credit they deserve. In the meantime, women, like 
those represented in this book and like the author 
herself, should be judged by the same professional 
standards as are applied to their male colleagues. The 
seventeen biographies in this volume attest to the 
genuine accomplishments of the subjects and the 
biographer. The highest competency marks all of the 
women whose work is reviewed: Le- 
Page's research and documentation are 
of the same high caliber. In the androg- 
ynous world of Virginia VVoolf's vision 
these women would be judged as equals 
with men. When our society has reach- 
ed this ideal, the separate domain we 
call the "world of women" will no longer exist 
because it will have become an inextricable part of all 
humanity's quest for excellence. 

•My particular experiences in the field of literary scholar- 
ship have been fortunate in that [ have, lor the most part, 
worked with colleagues who did not use or condone sexist 
labels. Nonetheless, however much women scholars and 
teachers may enjoy the respect of their colleagues, their 
income remains disgracefully lower than their male coun- 
terparts'. LePage's hook dots not address the issue of re- 
muneration. One hopes that the list of publications and 
recordings, the performances reviewed, and the conducting 
and teaching posts reported are translatable into monetary 
rewards as well as into the equally real compensation ol 
aesthetic fulfillment. 1 would like to think the disparity be- 
tween worth and recompense for women in music is less 
shocking than for women in other fields. 

l.eti Newman in Associate Professor of English (it North Adams 
Stale College and the author of A Reader's Guide to the Short Sto- 
ries of Nathaniel Hawthorne fGX Hall, !"7V). 

Dwigllt />. Killam is Professor of Music at North Adams Slate Col- 
lege and a past president of llie Massachusetts Musk Educators 

The drawings in this issue are by Sudan Morris, of East 0Qvef, 
Ver m o n t,